I AM THE GAMEMASTER! The CREATOR'S ORIGINAL & ONLY! THESE ARE THE ONLY REAL RULES OF GOD'S GAME יהוה
Updated: Aug 18, 2019
Digging out the hidden codes and teaching of Kabbalah.Written By: Jeffrey Meiliken His Name Is Jeff MeiliKEN For ME!!...KenD...Ken Davis - Kenneth Ian Davis -יהוה
The Real Original Only Authentic Messiah Has Arrived (2019) IMDb Short Biography Film Video Movie!!
Everyone who knows me knows I do not play games. The reason why is I control the rules of the game I don't play. That's why God created me - the Original & Only Gameaster that can't be beat!
We listed some of the abnormal symmetry built into our solar system.
For anyone that has not been following this series from its inception, you can find the entire work here.
We even mentioned their relationship between the circle and the square.
We also did not explain that the sum of the Earth’s radius and the Moon’s radius together is exactly 7! or (7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1) = 5040 miles, or the Torah has 91 doubled words running through it and at the midpoint of them is the doubled word Darosh Darash (דרש דרש) each of numerical value 504 and that there are 50 words with a value of 504 in the Torah, split right down the middle at Darosh Darash.
A better theory is that everything was intelligently designed to work out specifically as it did. There are two obvious possible reasons for doing this: 1) laziness, or 2) the desire that said symmetrical dimensions be seen as proof of that very intelligent design. Efficiency is more likely than laziness and designed efficiency is a sign of designed intelligence in and of itself. That symmetry would be far more practical inside of a simulation program, especially if it had a typical game-like design. Beyond our inner solar system, the physics could be fuzzy and the data incomplete as no one would actually ever be exploring it and it would be irrelevant to beating the game. To that end, we find that all the other solar systems discovered so far are fairly similar: similar size and types of planets bunched closely around their stars, which all are far more active and less hospitable than our star.
One alternative is that G-d as Creator is real and He is directly overseeing our incubation evolution and that He injected the Torah, etc. as a tool and codex for us and the Hebrew Alef-bet as a deciphering tool. An alternative is that some other more advanced race is doing that on behest of the Creator. Both of these alternatives would presuppose that the Creator has not yet figured out how to harness multi-dimensionality, time manipulation, hyperspace, or infinity. In other words, existence, relatively speaking, is in its infancy. That is certainly possible, and very quaint. It is not very efficient either.
How do we Beat the Game?
The goal of our simulation game is to reach enlightenment, an enlightened state that extricates us from this simulated universe and advanced us to a higher-level simulation, called Binah (understanding) in kabbalistic terminology.Ending your own life results in rebooting into a lower level simulation.Dying results into rebooting (reincarnating) into the Earth or base-simulation with a different avatar.Certain memories are allowed to be attached to the consciousness substrate that gets rebooted. Whether the consciousness gets to choose, or the program chooses for them with the use of an algorithm, which may include a random component, is not known.Those memories are just shadows of the original ones and only get reinforced if they meet up with real-life simulated counterparts (i.e. the same or similar person or consciousness again).If those memories build, the program automatically allows them to be passed on in the next reboot (karma, tikkun).The memories can also be knowledge and get accumulated and reinforced through various iterations (incarnations).The Torah is a mandatory component as it contains an escape valve, is a guidebook, and also a rule book all in one.Clues must be built into the system to enable participants (players) to reach the goal.There is no limit to rebooting (incarnations) but a time limit must be imposed on the whole simulation so that resources are not wasted on improperly designed systems and so that too many entities do not get enlightened once a tipping point is achieved.A point system should be in place, rewarding the player by making it easier to reach their goal. These points would be invisible to the player within the simulation and only visible to the consciousness outside the simulation. These points would be used by the algorithm to help determine what avatar the consciousness would be rebooted into.No accumulation of material within the simulation transfers to the consciousness in any form and thus cannot be rebooted nor contribute to the goal.A strong opponent or opposing force must be injected into the simulation soon after creation. That opponent cannot alter the program or operate outside the base simulation in any way or take away earned “spiritual” points that are recorded outside the base simulation. That opponent can confuse players and use illusion to redirect their attention and their goals. That opponent can reinforce the player’s belief that their simulated world is real and reward any player for such belief. That opponent can create rules within the simulation that do not govern the simulation but govern the perception of the players within it, including but limited to their perception of time, life, and physicality. Those rules may include a reward system that runs counter to the simulation’s reward system and intent.
Those rules may coopt and offer themselves as optional replacement for the immutable guidebook given to all players. That opponent can create a belief system that negates the guidebook and discourages the true goal of the simulation. The opponent cannot deny the existence of the Creator but can trick the players into believing that perceived negative aspects of the simulation are attributable to the Creator or the wrath of the Creator (i.e. hurricanes). The opponent wins by preventing players from reaching the true goal before time runs out.Clues cannot be altered, removed, or further hidden wherever placed and the system is designed to protect and preserve them. As the time limit approaches the Creator or the program has the right to reveal more of the clues and signs that were there all along but may have been better hidden.After a player has reincarnated through the entire simulation, he may be reincarnated into any time frame within the entire simulation until the simulation time limit is reached.Upon death there is a brief period where the consciousness is analyzed and cleansed/scanned for defects or corruptions. Occasionally, the consciousness can be rebooted into the same host body at the discretion of the program and/or Creator. If it is it is usually for a good reason. We call it a near-death experience.In order for the opponent to corrupt a player or group of players he must be invited in, though the opponent may use illusion and temptation to do so. An important point the Torah makes through the incident of the golden calf and Aaron.There is a certain level of allowable glitches in the system in order to be efficient and not waste resources trying for unnecessary perfection. This also allows awaking players to reinforce their burgeoning realization. If you are noticing them or realize things are not adding up, you are probably on the right path. Though the opponent may want to convince you that you are crazy or seeing things.The Creator, or operating program of the simulation, can inject non-player operatives into the simulation at will. These NPOs appear as any other player but are incorruptible by the opponent. That is not to say they are saints, only that whatever mission they have been assigned cannot be changed by the opponent. Those NPOs would not know that they are NPOs only that they would have a very high degree of suspicion that they have a mission to fulfill no matter what temptations and distractions they are bombarded with. This type of NPO has a higher-level consciousness and has voluntarily agreed to temporarily enter the base-simulation in order to help elevate others.
The Creator, or operating program of the simulation, can inject special temporary non-player operatives into the simulation at will that have special missions. These are of much higher-level consciousness and enter only briefly to redirect a player or event to counter an over aggressive opponent. There are tools and trigger mechanisms built into the simulation that can draw these special NPOs to a player. The opponent cannot interfere with these special NPOs but can create his own temporary pseudo special NPOs that serve as illusions in order to confuse players. These have no consciousness of their own.Players must be made aware that there is a time limit to the simulation though not explicitly so or what that time limit is, though it is not prohibited. The opponent may counter with false dates or manipulate the illusion of time. When being made aware of a time limit it is not disclosed to the players what that time limit actually means to them, to their conscious state, or to the simulation that they are probably not even aware that they are in.
Who is the Opponent?
So what about that Zero(0) concept? How does it play into all this, because it clearly exists now as a deeply ingrained part of our culture and civilization? Our world as we know it and our lives would come to an abrupt halt without it. We have built our entire technology system on the binary premise of Zero(0) and One (1) and we have inextricably harnessed ourselves to it.
Whether we believe ourselves in a simulation or not, in the last few years we
In any game, whether a simulation game or a “real” life game, what is the minimum number of opponents needed to play?
Two, right? So whether the rules elucidated above are true or not, or whether we are in a nested simulation or the “live” first iteration of existence, which would still mean we exist as a simulation in the mind of G-d, the Creator, there would need to be an opponent to make things interesting? So, if G-d is One (1), Player 1, and also the Creator, what would be an appropriate opponent?
First, the Creator would have to create this opponent and to a certain extent sever Himself from it in order for there to be a competition of sorts. The opponent would have to operate autonomously yet would have to be eliminable. So, what is the best foil for Oneness (1), wholeness, endlessness, eternity, infinity?
Is there any better opponent or foil than (0) metaphysically?
We discussed earlier that 0 is not only an empty set, a null set, it is also a number capable of wiping out any other number it comes in contact with simply through multiplication. It is a number that does not add anything to any other number or set. In that sense it is the ultimate in selfishness compared with One (1), which can likewise be seen as the ultimate in selflessness. When 1 is multiplied by any number it imparts its essence to that number yet allows that number to be itself. In kabbalah that would be akin to the support of an ibur, an additional helping soul. Zero, like death, just wipes out the number instead. Every number is comprised of many Ones(1) added together, except zero, which has no attributes in common. Zero is not nothingness though; it is also endless, an endless abyss. More on this later.
The Zero(0) is somewhat a symbolic opponent. Nevertheless, what is more efficient; hat the Creator and the opponent battle each other over every life (player) and every decision that life makes, or to let a monitored simulation program handle them automatically based on complex and algorithms that may get updated or tweaked with each iteration?
The Kabbalah Proportion
There is yet another proportion to which we should compare the odd/even split of the alef-bet. That is the basic kabbalistic one of 1/3 to 2/3 or .333 to .666. Since .333 or 33.33% of 1495 is 498, it leaves 997 as 66.66% of 1495.
498 625 571 997 870 924 1495 1495 1495
A quick comparison reveals the shift from the odd/even split to the kabbalistic 1/3 – 2/3 split is 127 units:
625 997 -498 -870 127 shift 127 shift
A quick comparison reveals the shift from the phi split to the kabbalistic 1/3 – 2/3 split is 73 units:
571 997 -498 -924 73 shift 73 shift
This makes logical sense since comparing the shifts we see that 127 – 73 = 54, simply indicating the shift we have already seen between Odd/Even and Phi(ϕ). What does not make logical sense is that there are several significant Torah connections that tie into these 127 and 73 shift numbers.
Upon completion of the Torah’s 54th paragraph we have the statement, “Sarah lived to be 127 years old.” And do not think for a second this is coincidence because at the 54th paragraph of the Book of Shemot we have the 10 Commandments.127 is the 7th Mersenne Prime of the form andGiven that and given that the Torah’s first verse has 7 words, it is notable that the total gematria of those 7 words is 2701, which is the sum of the integers from 1 – 73, and also that there 127 different combinations of its 7 gematria values. Let us not forget that the total of 401273 elements in the Torah directly related to Phi(ϕ).Also, that 127 is the 6th in the exclusive Primeth Recurrence series and pointed to the 7th in the series, 709, the 127th prime number, which was the sum of 7The word-value 127 is found 64 times in the Torah, as in the 64 times each word of the 7 first words is utilized out of the 127 total combinations of those 7127 is the complete value of the 3rd word, Elohim (אלהים), and when the ordinal value within the first verse is added (10+11+12=13=14) = 60, the total is 187, as in the 187 chapters in the Torah.
Since we know that 54 is the ordinal value of the Torah’s first 5 letters it is also notable that 127 is the ordinal value of its first 13 letters and therefore 73 is the ordinal value of the next 8 letters, while the ordinal value of the 2nd-4th letters is 42. Redundancy at every level in order that we do not miss the message, and in order to reinforce the underlaying technology connecting us to the source beyond the shift: One.
Simply, 54 + 13, the two numbers responsible for the Phi(ϕ) shift, together equal 67, the numerical value of the hyper dimension of Binah, and the number of verses in the Torah, 5845 – 67 = 5778. Is this yet another clue?
10 Bases, Not 1
Adding another layer of complexity that any hyper-intelligent design would efficiently account for is found in that fact that all numbers can be viewed in different base systems, not just base 10 where we do all our math and accounting. Computers operate in a world of base 2, using only the digit 1, and the null digit 0, not very practical for us but just fine for them at the moment. If we keep teaching them through AI to be more human, maybe they will eventually want more digits to play with. Regardless, the Creator of the Torah has taken all 10 bases into consideration in its programming.
We know the Hebrew alphabet is constructed out of an exponential curve. The inverse of an exponential curse is a relatively flat logarithmic one. What this means is that if we take the logarithm in any base of any number under even a quadrillion, it will at most produce a two-digit number no higher than 50. If we combined the logarithms in all 10 bases added together, we would still have to pass the number 12 million to reach triple digits. The sum of the logarithms in all 10 bases of the lowest possible whole number, 2, bounds the other side with a total of 4.25. Please note that all the logs from bases 1 –10 for the number 1 are “0,” which if we wanted to extract meaning from, we could say that in Unity (Oneness) there is zero (“0”) space between us.
The reason we are explaining this is that when we take the sum of the logs in all 10 bases for the number 1000, representing binah and Alef(א), also the 1000 letters of the Shema, and the 1000 value difference in the first verse and the 42-Letter name, we get a very close approximation (42.3994) to 42.4, Moshiach Ben David. As explained above, no other whole number, only 1000, for all infinity could work out closer, even considering any multiple of 10 times 42.4. This is because of the nature of logarithms and them being bounded by 4.25 below and 100 above.
If we do dip beneath the whole number 2, it does not get any closer to 4.24 unless we go out 6 decimal places or so, which is meaningless. What is meaningful, though, is that the sum of the logs for the bases 1-10 for the number 1.998 or 3 x .666 is 4.248, a convincing reference to 4248, the sum of the 22 spelled out Names of 22 Hebrew letters and the prime equation 1/.235711131719…
Given that all the summary logs from 1 to 12 million must fall between 4.25 and 100 and given that each one is the sum of 10 different mostly irrational numbers, the odds of one being so close to anything meaningful, like 1000 and 42.4 above, are astronomical, yet there are indeed a few more.
For example, given the pivotal moment in our history when the Torah was received on Mt Sinai in 2448 HC and the importance of the number 54, we know it is not coincidental that the sum of logs of bases 1 -10 for the number 54 is 24.48. This is especially so given the relationship between 5778 and 2448 in the counting of 66.6 jubilee years, and that 54 x 107 = 5778 with the sum of all the integers from 1 to 107 being 5778. Are these clues about the time frame?
Does the relationship between a circle or 360 degrees and the number 54 play a part? 360/54 = 6.66
The Zohar, numerous Kabbalistic texts, even the Passover Haggadah speak about the 50 Gates of Binah and that in order to cross the Sea of Reeds (the Endless Sea or Binah) and exit Egypt the Israelites had to cross the 50th Gate first. This connection to Binah, or what we would call hyperspace, with the 50 Gates is the same reason we count 50 years in each jubilee cycle and the same reason we were told to start counting them in 2448 HC. The 10 plagues are mentioned 50 times in the Torah and who led the Israelites out of Egypt? Moses, of numerical value 345. Therefore, it is most fitting that the sum of the logarithms of all the bases from 1-10 for the number 3450, representing Moses (משה 345) times 10 is precisely 50.000. Clues? Think about the rules of simulation game theory.
The number 3450 connects to the 4th and 6th words of the Torah (ואת and את), also known as the two hands of G-d, which are found 3450 times in the Torah. They are connected to Abraham in that 401 + 407 = 808, the numerical sofit value of Abraham.
Think about the rules of simulation game theory. Who were Moses and Abraham? We have said they were both real and archetypes. Given a narrative written before the events happened, what would be the best way to ensure it played out as written, especially concerning the main characters?
While the Log of 127 is 2.10380, instantly reflective of the 210 years of exile in Egypt (Mizra’im) of numerical value 380, it is also reflective of the 210 hypercube so it almost feels as if the universe is guiding us by the hand to yet another one of those precise summations of logarithms of all 10 bases, this time for the number 12700, whose resultant sum is 58, or 57.99957 to be exact, another representation of the 58 elements, which can also be found in the same summations of the logs, Σ logs(1-10) 4930 = 50.80000.
In fact, in the first 7000 numbers there is only a handful of them that work out to a solid 3 or 4 decimal places. Some may have meaning like 6728 yielding 54.1 (54.09999) with Israel being 541, or like 6620 yielding 54.00066. There is also 26 yielding 19.99799 or 20, and 3804 giving us 50.59999 or 50.6, as in the 506 triplets of the 42-Letter Name found in the Torah.
And what about the sum of the logs of the 10 bases for the number 937 yielding 41.9997 or 42? In fact, this is the closest result of any number to a whole number of any number. Go figure! Then again, the second closest number is 58, the complement to 42. No question the universe is sending us yet another message. Perhaps about the 10 dimensions, the 42-Letter Name and Binah hyperspace. Who knows? Clues.
A More Natural Way to Split the Alef-Bet
There is a more natural way, though, to split the alef-bet into the 1/3 and 2/3 proportions that the Kabbalists use, including Rav Ashlag who as we explained earlier, used it to calculate the time of Moshiach as the period bounding 5778. If we separate the alphabet into the first 18 letters and the final 4 letters, in other words the single and double-digit letter values juxtaposed to the triple-digit letter values, we get a split of 495 and 1000. This works out to .3311 and .6688, off from true .3333 and .6666 by a miniscule yet telling, .0022 and .0028 amounts, which is pretty much negligible for the most natural sequential split imaginable. Oddly, when we take their ordinal values, the proportion is almost exactly reversed with the 18 letters equal to 171 out of a total 253, and the 4 last letters equal to 82. Yet what makes this truly interesting is that the complete value of those first 18 letters is 495 + 171 = 666. Clues? Designed intelligence?
Together the two splits in the alef-bet equal (100 + 175) = 275, which is independently derivative of the fact that there are 22 letters. The 22 letters plus the sum of their ordinal value, which is Σ(1-22) = 253 , gives us (22 + 253) = 275. If you recall, 27.5” is the measure of the secret ancient cubit necessary for building the Future Holy Temple. The proportion 100 is 36.36363% of 275, as in the numerical value of Moshiach Ben David (363), and 175 is 63.636363% of 275.
So, it appears that through the Torah we have been provided a hint to the secret cubit through the life of Abraham, and the same can be said for the first and last parts of the alef-bet. Moreover, we can derive it from the alef-bet even without splitting it. Earlier, we saw how the same 275/10 = 27.5 derivation applied to the 4 aspects of the Tetragrammaton(יהוה). Is there a reason we are getting all these clues? What do the rules say? We must ask what did the Torah measure with cubits?
Isaac was born in 2048 HC when Abraham was 100, so thirty (30) years passed between the blessing of innumerable descendants and Isaac’s birth to begin fulfilling that, which is why in two separate places in the Torah it alludes to the 430 years of the Egyptian exile and also the 400 years of the Egyptian exile. Both are correct and refer to two different viewpoints and starting frameworks, that of Abraham, and that of Isaac/everyone else.
Mountains and Vortices
If you want to find out where the real power is in this world follow the money. If you want to find where the real power is in the universe follow the energy. Forgetting the myriad layers of understanding and technology beneath the surface of the Torah, the narrative itself is meant to show us the energetic pathways and their sources.
As much as the Torah concerns Moses, it also revolves around Abraham. Abraham (248) is alluded to in the 248-dimensional matrix it is built around to the Phi split in both the E8 lattice and the 401273 elements of the Torah, in the sum of the Names of the 5 Books being 2480, and in the 248 columns in the Torah. So, let us examine Abraham’s lifeline a little closer. We see that the important event of the binding of Isaac, his son, occurred at age 37 when Abraham was 137, both core prime numbers being intricately woven into the Torah’s first verse with all its cubic functions and with its relationship with the 42-Letter Name. That 37-year period splits the timeline in uneven halves from Isaacs birth at age 100 for Abraham to his death at age 175. Sarah died at the age of 127, which the Torah oddly and specifically broke down to 100 and 20 and 7 years, when she heard the rumor of the sacrifice of her son Isaac.
Besides the 27 letters in the full alphabet that we have just highlighted, there are both the Torah’s and the rare mathematical connections between 127 and the number 7 already discussed. Moreover, while Isaac was also 37 when Sarah died, Abraham’s other named son, Ishmael, also lived to 137 years of age, 37 years less than his father, which brings up yet another connection to the E8 lie group and the E8 lattice of dimension 248 in 8 spatial dimensions in that Abraham had 8 sons in total. And in relation to the 58 elements of the Torah, the gematria of Sarah is 505 and the gematria sofit of Abraham is 808.
Both 505 and 808 are simple multiple of the 26th prime number, 101, Together this numerical sum of the Patriarch and Matriarch (808 + 505) = 1313, naturally 13 (echad and ahava, Oneness and love) times 101, but also the year the Torah was received on Mt Sinai, 1313 BCE.
Moreover, the simple combination of 26 + 101 = 127, injecting the Tetragrammaton(יהוה) of value 26 into every one of the Torah and the universe’s equations involving 127 and 7 elements or dimensions.
As we said earlier, 808 is the sum of the 4th and 6th words of the Torah (ואת and את), in that 401 + 407 = 808. Collectively, these same two words are found 3450 times in the Torah, establishing integral connections to both Abraham and Moses. The Kabbalists say that beside actual personages these two men are archetypes of cosmic energy. They and the other Patriarchs are referred to as mountains because they are huge focal points of energy in the universe. They play a reflective role of this with their prominence in the Torah. Abraham and Moses are the two major complementary poles, not positive and negative as we think of them, more like male and female. Abraham had no walls on this tent, because he gave, gave constantly, gave us the One G-d philosophy. Moses received the Torah.
It is not that simplistic though. The numerical value of Abraham (248) is also that of womb, and Moses was a tremendous channel. In the sense that we can grasp they both embodied integrated male and female energy to some degree. Strength without mercy is dangerous. Mercy without strength is weakness.
Moses too is connected to the number 137 in that it is the age of Moses’ father and great grandfather as well. The connection between Moses and Abraham is further cemented in their lineage as Moses is the 26th in the line of Adam and Abraham is the 20th and as we have just seen the sum of the logs for all the bases from 1-10 for the number 26, representing the Tetragrammaton (יהוה), is 20.
There are 613 precepts in the Torah, of which 365 are restrictive ones—do not do this or you should not do that—and 248 are proactive. The 365 restrictive precepts, while helping us connect to the 248-dimensional vertices, also must align with the mountain, or energetic vortex, of Abraham. The 365 restrictive ones, we can assume have an alignment with the 365 days that it takes the Earth to encircle the Sun at 66,600 miles per hour. We would tell you to picture 365 invisible quantum strings, but a day is not fixed location. There is near infinite time in a day: 24 hours divided by 60 minutes by 60 seconds by picoseconds etc. So instead, view the 365 precepts as receptors, a phrase array antenna harnessing energy and recirculating it. Of those 365 receptors, 345 align with the mountain or energetic vortex of Moses, and the other 20 with Keter and the Tetragrammaton(יהוה) through the sum of the logs bases 1 – 10 for the number 26. According to kabbalah and the rules of simulation game theory, both sets of precepts bring the player spiritual coinage for doing them.
Given their integral connections, is it a specific design element that the difference between Abraham’s and Moses’ age’s is (175 – 120) = 55, the measure of 2 cubits, and part of the Torah’s (13 – 42 – 55) sequence that sums to 110, Joseph’s age, or twice the difference in Abraham’s and Moses’ age, 4 cubits. By the way, Jacob lived (147 – 110), or 37 years longer than his son, Joseph.
Jacob’s Ladder to G-d
The name Jacob(יעקב) includes the letters in the river Yabok (יבק) that line up with the 112 Triplets plus the letter Ayn (ע) for 70, as in the 70 family members that entered with him into Egypt, the 70 faces of the Torah, and the 70 words in the famous dream of Jacob’s ladder and G-d’s promise to him about his descendants, which is found in Parasha Vayetze, verse 28:12-15 (staring with V’hineh, when the dream began). This corresponds to age 70 when Abraham received a similar promise from G-d at the Covenant of Halves in 2018 HC, and also to the word “and the sand (וכחול)” in G-d’s similar blessing at the binding of Isaac event (Vayerah 22:17). In the first instance, G-d blessed Abraham that his descendants would be as the stars in the sky. In the second, He repeated that and added also the sand on the shore, injecting the element of physicality. There is also the allusion to ever shifting and drifting sand.
Much later in the Torah two censuses are taken of the Israelites, at the beginning and end of their sojourn through the desert, and the 12 tribes are enumerated, the descendants of Jacob. The total remained the same but the numbers in each tribe changed. If we split the 12 tribes in two groups, we see that in the first group the sum of the gematria values of their names equals 1820, as does the sum of their count differentials, matching the 1820 Tetragrammaton(יהוה) in the Torah or 10 x 182, Jacob (יעקב), their father.
This connection through Jacob, the Israelite tribes, and the 1820 Tetragrammaton(יהוה) is also why the Avot prayer (Magen Abraham) in the Amidah has 182 letters and 42 Words, strengthening these connections every time it is recited, especially in a minyan of 10 or more. Is 10 an arbitrary number? What does it mean to strengthen these connections?
The number 432 is the sum of 4 consecutive primes. The number of digits in those 4 primes = 27 and the 4 corresponding ordinal values, beginning with 27, sum to 114 as in the number of chakras (112 inside our bodies corresponding to the 112 Triplets, 2 outside them):